Panfilo de Narvaez and the story of the Apalachees
Hernando De Soto among the Apalachee: The Archaeology of the First Winter
R. Ewen and John H. Hann
This is a
chronicle of the discovery and excavation of the only known campsite,
located in downtown Tallahassee, of Hernando de Soto's 10-state odyssey
during the 16th century.
By Joyce Rockwood Hudson
Set in eighteenth-century Florida, this powerful novel
tells the story of Hinachuba Lucia, a Native American wise woman whose
people are caught in a brutal colonial contest between Spain and Britain.
With drama and historical accuracy, Apalachee portrays the
decimation brought upon the Indians of the Deep South by war, disease,
zealous missionaries, and intertribal slaving.
The Lake Jackson Mounds State Archaeological Site, on Lake Jackson,
is also owned by the State of Florida. It was the Apalacheesí prehistoric
capital and originally consisted of at least six platform mounds and a
village. It is one of Floridaís most important archaeological sites and is
open for visitors to hike and explore.
The Apalachees of
This is a
story that starts out in the capital of Florida. "Tallahassee" is an
Apalachee Indian word meaning "old town" or "abandoned fields". The
Apalachee Indians lived throughout the panhandle of Florida from 500
through the 1600s. In 1539, Hernando de Soto spent the first Christmas in
the New World in the woods near the present State Capitol. As more Spanish
colonists entered the panhandle, disease and fighting reduced their
population. The Apalachee Indians left and the area became an abandoned
village, thus it was called "Tallahassee".
From at least A.D. 1000, a group of
farming Indians was living in northwest Florida. They were called the
Apalachees. Other Florida Indians regarded them as being wealthy and
fierce. Some think the Apalachee language was related to Hitchiti of the
Muskhogean language family. The Apalachee had a reputation among
Spanish explorers as fierce warriors who zealously defended their lands,
bounded by the Aucilla River to the east and the Ochochonee River to the
west, and from what is now the Georgia state line to the Gulf of Mexico.
How They Lived
Prior to European contact, there were probably at least 50,000-60,000
Apalachees. Because the land they held was the most conducive to
agriculture, they were able to support a larger population, in larger and
more numerous villages. They were a strong and powerful chiefdom living in widely
dispersed villages. Their leaders organized their work, and much of their
social, ritual and political life as well. Other tribes respected the Apalachees because they belonged to an advanced Indian civilization, they
were prosperous, and they were fierce warriors. As with other Native
Americans, they attacked their enemies in small raids and ambushes, and
scalped their enemies.
For food, they grew corn, beans and squash. Men prepared the fields and
women tended the crops. Men also hunted bear, deer and small game, while
women gathered nuts and berries.
Traditionally the men wore deerskin loincloths and women wore Spanish moss
skirts. When preparing for battle, the men painted their bodies with red
ochre and put feathers in their hair.
The Apalachees played a ball game that was a religious exercise as well as
a sport. One village would challenge another to a match, and the two teams
would have up to 100 players each. They used a hard clay ball (about the
size of a golf ball) covered with buckskin. Players propelled the ball
with their feet toward the goal post which was a pole topped with a
stuffed eagle in a nest. They played the ball game in the spring and
summer, and dedicated it to the gods of rain and thunder to ensure rain
for their crops.
One characteristic of pre-Columbian Apalachee society was their large
ceremonial mounds. Some of the mounds had structures on top, and it is
generally believed that the largest mound within a complex was the site of
the chiefís house. Lake Jackson was the Apalacheesí capital and preeminent
mound center in late prehistoric times.
The Spanish Explorers Arrive
An expedition led by PŠnfilo de NarvŠez (read the sidebar story) in 1528 was the first group of
European explorers to make contact with the Apalachees. NarvŠez came to
the Tallahassee area searching for gold on the advice of Indians in the
Tampa Bay area where he landed.
More than a decade later, in 1539, Hernando de Soto wintered in Apalachee
Province. His expedition members stayed in the sixteenth century Apalachee
capital village called Anhaica. Both groups of Spanish intruders received
a hostile reception and were under almost constant attack from the
Apalachees. The European presence eventually took its toll on the
Apalachees from continual skirmishes and, eventually, contagious diseases
that were introduced by the explorers.
Apalachee rulers requested Spanish friars as early as 1607 when epidemics
and the threat of foreign attacks brought about a loss of faith in the
traditional customs and leadership. Between 1633 and 1635, as least 5,000
Apalachees converted to Catholicism.
The de Soto-era capital, Anhaica, became one of the first missions
established in Apalachee Province around 1633, and was eventually
relocated and renamed San Luis de Talimali. Between 1656 and 1704, San
Luis was a principal village of the Apalachee Indians and the Spaniardsí
westernmost military, religious, and administrative capital. More than
1,500 Apalachee Indians and Spaniards lived at the mission.
What Happened To Them?
Following a series of devastating attacks on Spanish Florida by the
British and their Creek Indian allies, Mission San Luis was burned and
abandoned by its residents on July 31, 1704. Some Apalachees, who were not
killed outright or enslaved, migrated north in to Creek territory. Others
moved east to St. Augustine with the Spaniards or temporarily relocated in Timucua Province before eventually resettling in St. Augustine.
Most of the Apalachees from Mission San Luis moved westward in 1704,
accepting an offer to live in French-controlled Mobile. In 1763, most of
these Apalachees relocated to Rapides Parish in Louisiana. Today, 250 to
300 of their descendants still live there. They are the only documented
descendants of any of Floridaís prehistoric native populations.
An early twentieth-century photograph records members of the
Talimali Band of the Apalachee Indians living in Louisiana. Their current
chief, Gilmer Bennett, is the son of Francis Vallery, standing far right.
(Courtesy Talimali Band, The Apalachee Indians of Louisiana)